Know Your Words

The Difference ‘Tween Fright and Horror


I forget where I saw it now, but I came across the word “preternatural” in something I was reading today and it got me thinking about what it meant and how it differed from similar words, such as supernatural. Then I though, “Hey, Halloween is almost here. Why not do a post on the ol’ wordy blog that shows folks the difference between Halloween-y words such as demonic, grotesque, and horror. And so, that’s just what I did. Enjoy.

By the way, the definitions of horror and grotesque are freakin’ awesome!

Possessed by a demon or evil spirit; of or pertaining to demons; Characteristic of or befitting a demon, devilish; Of the nature of a demon or in-dwelling spirit.

Full of dread, fear, or awe; Fearful, terrified, timid, or reverential; Inspiring dread or reverence, awe-inspiring; terrible, formidable; Awful, to be dreaded; In a weakened sense, applied to objects exciting fear or aversion.

Fear in general; Anything that causes terror, such as a person or thing of shocking, grotesque, or ridiculous appearance

A painful emotion compounded of loathing and fear; A shuddering with terror and repugnance; Strong aversion mingled with dread; The feeling excited by something shocking or frightful

Fun fact pertaining to the word horror: Horrescent, meaning “shuddering, expressive of horror,” is an actual word.

A kind of decorative painting or sculpture consisting of represenations of portions of human and animal forms fantastically combined and interwoven with foliage and flowers; In a wider sense, characterized by distortions or unnatural combinations; fantastically extravagant; bizarre; Ludicrous from incongruity, fantastically absurd.

Inspiring fear, awe, or horror, such as to cause one to shudder with fear

Something extraordinary or unnatural; An animal or plant deviating in one or more of its parts from the normal type, specifically an animal afflicted with some congenital malformation; An imaginary animal, such as a centaur, having a form either partially brute or partially human, or compound elements from two or more animal forms; A person of inhumane or horrible cruelty or wickedness

That which is out of the ordinary course of nature; beyond, surpassing or differing from what is natural; Non-natural. Formerly = abnormal, exceptional, unusual; sometimes = unnatural

Corrupt, evil, bad, base;  Of omens: portending or indicating misfortune or disaster, full of dark or gloomy suggestiveness; inauspicious, unfavorable.

That which is above nature; Belonging to a higher realm or system than that of nature; Transcending the powers or the ordinary course of nature

The state of being terrified or greatly frightened; Intense fear, fright, or dread

Not in accordance or conformity with the physical nature of persons or animals; Not in accordance or agreement with the usual course or nature; At variance with natural feeling or moral standards, excessively cruel or wicked.

Of persons not fearing or reverencing God; Irreligious, impious, wicked; Of actions not in accordance with the will or law of God; (colloquially) Outrageous, dreadful.

Oxford English Dictionary (compact version)


Know Your Words · LRL Achive

The Dictionary: An Agreeable Companion

Dictionary Digger
A reference enthusiast of yore celebrates Dictionary Day way back when. (image in public domain.)

In honor of Dictionary Day, I looked at how the word dictionary was defined in in eight references published over a span of 79 years. Much to my surprise, the definition of the term  has remained remarkably steady over the years, although they do seem to grow larger as time progresses.


Webster’s School and Office Dictionary (1914)

Dictionary. A book containing the words of a language arranged alphabetically, with their meanings; a work explaining the terms of any subject under heads alphabetically arranged.

National Dictionary (1940)

Dictionary. A book containing all, or the principal, words in a language, with phonetics indicative of the sound of each, followed by definitions and other explanatory matter. See lexicon. [Late Latin]

Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language (1966)

Dictionary. [Middle Latin dictionaries < Latin dictio] 1. A book of alphabetically listed words in a language, with definitions, etymologies, pronunciation, and other information; lexicon: a dictionary is a record of generally accepted meanings, acquired up to the time o its publication. 2. A book of alphabetically listed words in a language with their equivalents in another language: as a Spanish-English dictionary. 3. Any alphabetically arranged list of words or articles relating to a special subject: as, a medical dictionary.

Random House Dictionary of the English Language (1966)

Dictionary. 1. A book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon; glossary: a dictionary of English; a french-English dictionary. 2. a book giving information on particular subjects or on a particular class of words, names, or facts usually arranged alphabetically: a biographical dictionary; a dictionary of mathematics [< ML dictionarium, lit., a wordbook < LL, dictio – word (see diction) + arium -ary]

American Heritage Dictionary (1969)

Dictionary. 1. A reference book containing an explanatory alphabetical list of words, as: a. a book listing a comprehensive or restricted selection of the words of a language, identifying usually the phonetic, grammatical, and semantic value of each word, often with etymology , citations, and usage guidance, and other information. b. Such a book listing the words of a particular category within a language. 2. A book listing the words of a language with transitions into another language. 3. A book listing words or other linguistic items, with specialized information about them: a medical dictionary [Medieval Latin dictionaries, from latin dicta, Diction]

Webster’s Dictionary (1971)

Dictionary [Latin: dicere, to say] A book containing, alphabetically arranged, the words of a language, their meanings, and etymology; a lexicon

World Book Dictionary (1989)

Dictionary. 1. A book that explains the words of a language, or some special kinds of words. it is usually arranged alphabetically. One can use a dictionary to find out the meaning, pronunciation, or spelling of a word. A medical dictionary explains words used in medicine. A German-English dictionary translates German words into English. A dictionary of biography has accounts of people’s lives arranged in alphabetical order of their names. From the time of [Samuel] Johnson on, the dictionary has been a conservative and standardizing agency from the spelling of the language as well as for its other aspects. Syn: lexicon. 2. a book of information or reference n any subject or branch of knowledge, the items of which are arranged in some stated order, often alphabetical: a dictionary of folklore, a Dictionary of the Bible. 3. Figurative. any repository of knowledge or information: Life is our dictionary (Emerson). Abbr: dict. [Medieval Latin dictionaries < Latin dictio]

Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (1993)

Dictionary [Middle Latin dictionaries, Late Latin dictiondicta word + latin -arium – ary] 1: a reference book containing words usu. alphabetically arranged along with information about their forms, pronunciations, functions, etymologies, meanings, and syntactical and idiomatic uses < a general ~ of the English language> <a monolingual ~>–compare vocabulary entry 2a: a reference book listing terms of names important to a particular subject or activity along with discussion of their meanings and applications <a law~> <a~of sports>; broadly: an encyclopedic listing <a~of dates> c: a reference book listing terms as commonly spelled together with their equivalents in some specialized system (as of orthography or symbols) <a~of shorthand> <a pronouncing ~> 3a: a general comprehensive list, collection, or repository <a ~ of biography> <a usage ~> b. vocabulary in use (as in a special field): terminology <the ~ of literary criticism> c: a vocabulary of accepted terms <in the ~ of the French Academy> d: a vocabulary of the written words used by one author <systematic dictionaries of individual authors> e: lexicon

On one hand, the similarity among the definitions seems strange, as it’s hard to believe that there haven’t been new ideas about the dictionary in nearly 80 years. On the other, the constancy of the definitions mirrors the history of dictionary making itself. As E.L. McAdam and George Milne write in their introduction to Johnson’s Dictionary: A Modern Selection, “All lexicographers use earlier dictionaries, if only to avoid the danger of omitting some words by inadvertence.” Could that be the reason for the similarity?

I don’t know the answer to that question. What I do know, however, is that dictionaries are so much more than just their definitions. The are friends … or at least “agreeable companions.”

To many people a dictionary is a forbidding volume, a useful but bleak compendium to be referred to hastily for needed information, such as spelling and pronunciation. Yet what a dictionary ought to be is a treasury of information about every aspect of words, our most essential tools of communication. It should be an agreeable companion. By knowledgeable use of the dictionary we should learn where a word has come from, precisely what its various shades of meaning are today, and its social status. — American Heritage Dictionary 

I concur! And with that, I wish you a Happy Dictionary Day!

To see more examples of all the awesome information available in dictionaries of all types, poke around this site! Don’t know where to start? Look at the list of previous posts or the tag cloud on the right side of the page.


Know Your Words

The “Trouble” in Enigma

Nelson Muntz was once described as “an enigma wrapped in a riddle, wrapped in a vest.” An article in today’s Washington Post refers to the Trump White House as a “troubling enigma.” These are entertaining and memorable statements (and in the case of the second one, somewhat sad), but what exactly does the word enigma mean?


An enigma, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is:

  1. A short composition in prose or verse, in which something is described by intentionally obscure metaphors, to afford an exercise for the ingenuity of the reader or hearer to guessing what it meant; a riddle. In a wider sense, an obscure or allusive speech; a parable.
  2. Something as puzzling; an unsolved problem.

As for the word’s origin, enigma, says the Oxford Dictionary of Word Histories, “comes via Latin from Greek ainigma ‘riddle,’ from ainissesthai, ‘speak allusively or obscurely,’ from ainos, ‘fable.'”

The Dictionary of Word Origins (Ayto) says the same thing, as does Origins, but the latter offers an interesting addition that makes the term and its use a little clearer. After providing an etymology similar to the above, it notes:

… to speak darkly, hence in riddles, from ainos, a fable or an allegory; perhaps comes from the Gothic inilo,  a plea, or a reason, to be excused.

The addition of a word like “darkly,” is helpful given that, while enigma is equated with something puzzling or undecipherable, the word has always had a sinister tinge to it. (The use of the word “intentional” in the OED definition starts down this path, but doesn’t go far enough.) In fact, the sense of evil in the word is precisely why it’s so applicable to a character like Nelson Muntz, and why it is indeed so “troubling” to apply it to the current U.S. administration.

Dictionary of Word Origins
Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English
Oxford English Dictionary (compact edition)
Oxford Dictionary of Word Histories

For more info on the LRL’s collection, go here.

Know Your Words

The Origin of “Hurricane”

With all the recent news about the struggles of Puerto Rico’s citizens following Hurricane Maria, you may find yourself wondering a few things. Would I be able to survive in such conditions? Are the people of Puerto Rico resilient and tough or what? And, of course, why was the federal government’s response to this disaster so slow? You may also find yourself wondering, as I was, about the history of the word hurricane. To find out, I let the winds of curiosity drive me into the Lonely Reference Library. Here’s what I learned.

Winslow Homer – Hurricane, Bahamas (1897 – image in public domain)

According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the term hurricane

“… is the name given primarily to the violent windstorms of the West Indies, which are cyclones [with diameters] of 50 to 100 miles, wherein the air moves with a velocity of from 80 to 130 miles per hour around a central calm space, which with the whole system advances in a straight or curved track; hence any storm or tempest in which the wind blows with terrific violence.”

This isn’t too far off from the definition of hurricane used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, home to the National Weather Service and National Hurricane Center), which states: “A tropical cyclone in the Atlantic, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, or eastern Pacific, which the maximum 1-minute sustained surface wind is 64 knots (74 mph) or greater.”

(In case you’re wondering, NOAA defines a tropical cyclone as “A warm-core, non-frontal synoptic-scale cyclone, originating over tropical or subtropical waters with organized deep convection and a closed surface wind circulation about a well-defined center.”)

Annnnyway …

The OED says the word first appeared in a 1555 work titled Decades of the New World by Italian historian Peter Martyr. In it he writes, “the tempests of the ayer, they caule furacanes … violent and furious.”

Furacanes? It would seem so.

According to the (Ayto) Dictionary of Word Origins:

“European voyagers first encountered the swirling winds of the hurricane in Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, and they borrowed a local word to name it–(Carib.) huracan. This found its way to into English via Spanish. An early alternative form was furacano, which came from a Caribbean variant furacan.

Origins, the “short etymological dictionary of modern English,”  offers a similar story, with an intriguing twist:

Hurricane: Spanish huracán: Taino (a language native to the region, now said to be extinct) huracan, hurricán, an evil spirit of the sea, hence hurricane. (Websters; Spanish authorities prefer Caribbean huracán.)

I looked throughout the LRL’s holdings for more on this “hurricán – evil spirit” connection, but could find nothing. I did, however, learn that dreaming of a hurricane could mean that “your dreaming mind is warning you that someone’s (maybe yours) pent-up emotion is about to burst out of control.” Dreams of hurricanes could also mean that you:
1. “Feel powerless against violent or chaotic emotions,”
2. Are unable to face “your own insecurities,” or,
3. Fret over the “frailty of the material world.”


Dictionary of Word Origins (Ayto)
Dream Dictionary from A to Z
Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English
Oxford English Dictionary (compact edition)

Know Your Words · Loner's Dictionary

It’s about Time!

Engraving by John Byddell of Truth, “the daughter of time” being led out of the darkness by Time, which “revealeth all things. A vomiting demon labeled hypocrisy threatens her. (Image in public domain)

It’s been more than a month since my last post in this virtual space. What have I been doing? Well, first and foremost, I moved. That took a lot of time (so many trips back and forth from the old place to the new! Ugh). As for the rest of it, I … I … don’t have any idea. I did, however get an idea: hence this post about the word time.

The word time, as I’m sure you’re well aware, can refer to many things. To make sure we’re all on the same page, I’m using the word to mean, “the period between events or during which something exists, happens, or acts; a measured or measurable interval.” (Thank you, Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language.)

Okay, so that’s how I’m using it, but where does this word come from? The Oxford Dictionary of Word Histories offers the following explanation:

Old English tima, of Germanic origin, is related to tide, which it superseded in temporal senses, leaving tide to refer to the movements of the sea. The earliest of the current verb senses (dating from the late Middle English) is ‘do (something) at a particular moment.’

As usual, the (Ayto) Dictionary of Word Origins offers another opinion.

Time originally denoted ‘delimited section of existence, period.’ Its ultimate source is the Indo-European base *di- ‘cut up, divide.’ This passed in prehistoric German as *ti- (source of English tide), and addition of the suffix *-mon- produced *timon – whence English time and Swedish timme ‘hour.’ The application of the word to the more generalized, abstract notion of ‘continuous duration’ dates from the 14th century.

And as usual, both of these explanations pale in comparison to the expert information one finds in Eric Partridge’s Origins, which begins by explaining the link between tide and time.

1. The tides of the sea were so names from their occurrence at regular times: the basic sense of tide (Middle English tide, earlier tid) was ‘time,’ hence a definite time, an opportune time, as in ‘Time and tide wait for no man.’

“Time smoking a picture” (William Hogarth). Image in public domain

2. Time … is akin to Old Norse timi. It is therefore clear that, already in Old Norse and Old English, time and tide were doublets: they have the same root, but different suffixes: the Old Germanic root is *ti-, corresponding to an Indo-European root *di-, comes from Armenian ti, time, and the Sanskrit goddess Aditis (a-, ‘not’ + ditis), ‘the timeless, hence eternal, one’: perhaps also comes from Sanskrit dayate, he divides, he apportions, and Greek daiomai, I divide or apportion ….

So there you have it: from the time on the clock that divides up your day, to the tides of the ocean giveth and taketh away, to the Gods and Goddesses of divide and apportion everything, ourselves included. And to think I was just trying to come up with a clever way of apologizing for not having posted in a while. Mind blown.


Fascinating as it is, I find it interesting that none of these origin stories mentions Latin tempus, source of the English temporal and extemporaneous. Latin does rear its head, however, in the saying, “time flies,” which the Facts on File Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins (FFEW&FO) describes as:

An old workhorse of a phrase that goes back at least to the Latin tempus fugit, meaning the same, which in turn was suggested by a phrase in the Roman poet Virgil’s Georgics that translates: “Irretrievable time is flying!”

The FFEW&FO also lists a few other time-related phrases worth adding to your conversational repertoire:

Time, gentlemen, please! – A British barman’s reminder that the pub will be closing.
Time heals all wounds – uttered by Hippocrates
Time wounds all heels – uttered by Frank Case (owner of the Algonquin Hotel in NYC)
Time to whistle up the dogs and piss on the fire – Cowboy slang for it’s time to go.



Dictionary of Word Origins (Ayto)
Facts on File Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins
Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English
Oxford Dictionary of Word Histories
Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language





Know Your Words · LRL Achive

Well Thank My Lucky Stars, That Could Have Been a Disaster!

stars_navigationThe other day, while reading a book titled “Callings,” I came across the following:

Being unwilling to bear the hurly-burly of faithfulness to our call, we court disaster—Latin for “against one’s stars”—and we end up agitated anyway. Although we have the choice not to follow a call, if we do not do so, the Sufi poet Kabir said, our lives will be infected with a kind of “weird failure.” We’ll feel alienated from ourselves, listless, and frustrated, and fitful with boredom, the common cold of the soul.

Being the “werd nerd” that I am, the armchair etymology in the first sentence of this excerpt caught my eye. It struck me as too perfect, too neat and tidy to be accurate, so I thought I’d check. Here’s what I found out.

Disaster, says the Oxford English Dictionary of Word Histories, is from the Italian word disastro, ‘ill-starred event,’ from dis- (expressing negation) and astro, ‘star’ from Latin astrum. Disastrous, from the same period, had the sense ‘ill-fated’ and is from French desastreux, from Italian disastroso (from disastro ‘disaster’).

“Aha,” I say! I didn’t think so! But before I get too full of myself, let’s get a second, third, and maybe fourth opinion, shall we?

The (Ayto) Dictionary of Word Origins seems to be on board:

The word disaster has astrological connotations. It comes, perhaps, via French desastre, from Italian disastro, this was a back-formation from disastrato, literally ‘ill-starred,’ a compound adjective formed from the pejorative prefix dis- and astro ‘star,’ a descendant of Latin astrum ‘star.’ This in turn came from Greek astron ‘star,’ source of English astronomy and related to English star. So the underlying meaning of the word is “malevolent astral influence.’

So does the hefty and poorly named Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, which links disaster to star and traces star back to “Greek astron or, rather Latin astrum becomes Italian astro, with compound disastro (Latin dis- connoting deviation), an event not favorable to one’s stars….

Even the Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories supports this interpretation.

Stars_weird“[The word disaster] entered English from Middle French or Old Italian [and] owes its very existence to astrology. Old Italian astro is ‘star’; a disastro was due to the negative aspects of stellar influence.”

So, contrary to what Callings purports, disasters happen because of one’s stars, not because a person acted against them.

Okay, so that’s the skinny on the relationship between disaster and star, but from where did this idea that each of us has stars, lucky or otherwise, originate? To find out, I went straight to the symbol references on the LRL’s shelves, but they left me in the dark (get it?). So, I went with plan B and hit the dream dictionaries, which did offer a bit of illumination (sorry … kind of). According to these texts, stars have always been “guides” in one way or another, a concept which fits with this idea that they could be”ill-fated” or lead us astray and into … you guess it … disaster.

The Watkins Dream Dictionary:

Stars suggest guidance, not only in the navigational sense, but also in the form of the ineffable, given that the vast majority of stars exist outside … our human remit.

The Dream Dictionary from A to Z:

The planets, stars, and constellations have been considered good-luck omens from the earliest times. Dreaming of them represents your wish to guide your own fortune, hence ‘wishing upon a star.’ In general, they suggest exciting new opportunities as long as you possess the necessary self-belief.

Dream Dictionary (Crisp):

Stars [represent] intuitions about the cosmos; the perhaps almost unnoticeable promptings or motivations which occur through life leading us in a particular direction [or] destiny.


Know Your Words · LRL Achive

The Truth about Phony

Hello Papercutters! I know, I know … it’s been a while. There was some (additional) Mother-in-Law interference last week, as well as some other stuff that kept me away from the blog. I won’t let it happen again! Honest!

Did you believe that, or did I come across as phony? You don’t have to tell me, but while we’re on the subject, let’s make phony our word of inquiry today, shall we?

Phony DJT

Phony is a strange word. Not only does our “president” like it (hence the tweet), but it has nothing to do with any of the “phones” that are out there in the world: telephones, homophones, microphones, headphones, megaphones. So what does it have to do with and what exactly does it mean?

We’ll take that last question first. As implied above, phony is often used as an adjective to describe something or someone as “fake, not real, or disingenuous.” It can also be used as a noun, meaning a disingenuous or hypocritical person, as in “That guy’s a phony.” But hey, don’t take my word for it, let’s go to the dictionaries!

American Heritage Dictionary:

phony (also phoney), adj. Informal. Not genuine or real; spurious; fake. n. 1. something not genuine. 2. A spurious person; impostor; hypocrite. [Origin unknown]

Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language

phony, adj. [said to be altered < Forney, cheap jewelry < forney rings, brass rings made by a manufacturer named Forney for sale by street peddlers], [Slang], not genuine; false; counterfeit; spurious; fake; sham. n. 1. something not genuine; sham; fake. 2. a person who pretends to be what he is not; charlatan; imposter. Also spelled phoney.

Since Webster’s referred to it as “slang” rather than “informal,” I also consulted the Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English (Partridge), which associates phoney/phony with “fraudulent, shady, criminal, unreal, and make-believe.”

PhonyObviously, there’s a lot of agreement among these references about the meaning of phony. It’s etymology, however, is a different story. We’ll get to that, but before we do, let’s (re)consider the president’s tweet. Putting aside the fact that “phony witch hunt” is redundant, his claim that jobs and enthusiasm are “way up,” just isn’t true. (It is true that the unemployment rate is the lowest it’s been since 2001, but the reason it’s so low is because a lot of people have left the labor market. Moreover, the rate at which the economy is adding jobs is well below expectations.) That would make his statement “false,” “spurious,” “not genuine,” and, you guessed it, phony. 

Now, about that etymology …

As much as I hate to disparage my favorite dictionary, it seems phony has nothing to do with a manufacturer of cheap rings named Forney. As the Facts on File Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins puts it:

phony. H.L. Mencken suggested that a mendacious maker of fake jewelry named Forney is the eponym behind this word, but no one else seems to agree with him. [Well, the folks at Webster’s do. – Ed.] The majority opinion is that phony is an alteration of fawney, British slang for a worthless ring, which itself derives from an Irish Gaelic word. The word, first recorded in 1890 or so, probably comes specifically from the fawney rig, a confidence game in which a worthless ring is planted, and when someone “finds” it he is persuaded by a “bystander” that he should pay the bystander for his share in the find.

Partridge’s etymological dictionary Origins tells a very similar story and, I presume, is the source of what appears in the Facts on File entry.

I’m Joe from the Lonely Reference Library, and you have my word on it.